Friday, October 18, 2019

The history of Restorative Justice in the UK Essay

The history of Restorative Justice in the UK - Essay Example Restorative justice practice consists of â€Å"direct and indirect mediation, family group conferences, healing/sentencing circles and community restorative boards† (Walgrave and Bazemore 1991; Crawford and Newburn, 2003; Gavrielides, 2007 cited in Gavrielides, 2011, p.2). The term â€Å"restorative justice† was coined in modern justice literature and practice during the 1970s (Yantzi, 1998).Van Ness and Strong (1997, p.24) assert that Albert Eglash introduced the term in his 1977 article, but later in (Van Ness and Strong, 2010) he referred to the research of Skelton (2005) who argues that 1977 chapter was reprinted from an article that Eglash published during 1958-59(cited in Gavrielides, 2011, p.2). Raymond Michalowski divides human societies into to broad historical categories: ‘acephalous’ (Greek word meaning headless) and ‘State’. Acephalous societies are considered to be earliest human aggregations ever recorded in history of human kind. Main characteristics of these societies were their diffuse structure, blood-related organization, and strong affiliation with group values (Michalowski, 1985). These societies were also the earliest kinds of human community that was there for some 30,000 years. Arthur Hartmann asserts that acephalous societies can be differentiated between nomadic tribes and segmental societies. They were small in size, economically cooperative, and comparatively egalitarian (Hartmann, 1995). Rene Kuppe states major attributes of acephalous societies: â€Å"a close relationship between these societies and their lebensraum, a lack of organization as state and social stratification, and the dealing with conflicts within a society th at is not based on institutional force by the state†(Kuppe,1990,p.10). Michalowski asserts that these societies laid pressure on potential deviants through promoting collective responsibility and group emotions that in turn

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