Monday, October 28, 2019

According to Collis and Hussey Essay Example for Free

According to Collis and Hussey Essay Interviews â€Å"are a method of collecting data in which selected participants are asked questions in order to find out what they do, think or feel†. Saunders et al. (2003) propose the idea that this method is an efficient way of collecting reliable and valid information, because the data gathered comes directly from the source in study, which certainly helps to achieve the research question and objectives of this project. Therefore, choosing interviews was based on its suitability in finding what is happening and seeking new sights when exploring career obstacles for Hong Kong women managers. Interviews are classified based on the degree of flexibility as well as formality and structure that the researcher would like to apply. Therefore, there are three types of interviews, structured, semi-structured and unstructured interviews (Kumar, 1999; Saunders et al. , 2000; Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2002). In the structured interview â€Å"the investigator asks a pre-determined set of questions, using the same wording and order of questions as specified in the interview schedule† (Kumar, 1999, p.109); in semi-structured interview, the questions are also prepared beforehand, but in contrast, they offer more flexibility in facilitating the interviewee to modify the questions to investigate new ideas that might come up during the interview; and the unstructured interviews are based on a general topic of interest, but the questions are spontaneously posed to the respondent (Kumar, 1999; Guillham, 2000; Saunders et al. , 2000; Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2002). See more: Foot Binding In China essay It has been suggested that for phenomenological approaches and exploratory researches, a semi-structure interview is the most suitable type since the interviewer can explore in-depth a specific area that might be of interest (Jankowicz, 1999). The interviews carried out for this research were semi-structured. One of the reasons of choosing this type of interview is because they are more conductible and easier to control in order to establish and maintain empathy with respondents, so make the respondents be more comfortable and express their opinions more freely. It also gives the interviewer the opportunity to discover and understand the respondents’ points of view and beliefs about a specific situation (Zikmund, 2000). Saunders et al. (2000) mention that semi-structured are qualitative research interviews and are classified as non-standardized, where questions might vary from one interview to another since it depends on the course that the conversation takes, hence it would required of additional questions. In addition, Healey and Rawlinson (1994 cited Saunders et al., 2000) point out that more than one type can be used within an interview, where one section may ask factual closed questions, such as personal details, and the next sections could explore more qualitative issues. In this case, a combination of styles was adopted within the interviews held. The first section consisted of a set of factual questions in order to find out the interviewee’s work position and background. The following sections were based on qualitative responses where relevant topics were taking under consideration accordingly to the literature review developed in Chapter II as well as aim and objectives of the research. For instance, in the second section, Hong Kong women managers were asked to shed light on their marriage and family aspects; their nature of job, obstacles in their career pathways; and their plans to grow in their organizations in future. Furthermore, the semi-structured interviews allowed a free-flowing discussion, which in turn produced a better understanding of the way of thinking, opinions, and behavior of women manager in relation to their experiences towards working in an environment that supports male managers and the career obstacles they face. 3. 7. 3. Data Quality Issues There are a number of data quality issues to be aware and consider when conducting an interview, otherwise it would put at risk the findings of the investigation. In this case information supplied to the interviewee, confidentiality, listening skills and recording of interviews is going to be considered for this section (Kvale, 1996; Saunders et al. , 2000). 3. 7. 3. 1. Information Supplied to the Interviewee An important issue to promote credibility to the investigation is the supply of relevant information to the participants prior the interviews. In this way, the interviewee considered the information under study and was prepare to discuss their experiences and opinions, which helped to develop the research credibility. This was reached through a letter sent to the participants, which can be seen in Appendix A. It was also mentioned the duration of the interviews, in order to let them organize their time and provide an approximately one hour to one hour and a half to the interview with no interruptions. 3. 7. 3. 2. Confidentiality According to Kvale (1996, p.114) â€Å"confidentiality in research implies that private data identifying the subjects will not be reported†. The author also highlight that the change of names to protect the privacy of the participants is of an important issue, since encourages people to reveal experiences, feelings and facts which enrich the information given by the interviewee, facilitating the development of the research (Kvale, 1996; Guillham, 2000). Hence, it was explained to the interviewee the purpose of the research and the use that it is going to have in order to gain their trust and confidence. 3. 7. 3. 3. Listening Skills For this quality issue, it is important to have attentive listening skills in order to understand the interviewee’s opinions and explanations, especially to identify comments that are relevant to the research and that might imply of develop new ideas and questions in order to keep the conversation going in the same track which is the basic characteristic of a semi-structured interview (Saunders et al. , 2000). In this case, commentaries were kept to a minimum, which allowed the interviewees to answer freely and avoid bias to the questions asked. 3. 7. 3. 4. Recording of Interviews There have been issues in relation to the recording of information gathered from the data collection methods, and the most acceptable one is the tape-recording, which its record has to be immediately after it was taken in order to obtain a reliable data for its analysis. This issue leads to what have been mentioned above in relation to the confidentiality that the researcher gives to the study per se. In addition, authors suggest making notes as well in order to make the most of the interview, that is, not to miss any relevant information that the interviewee provides (Guillham, 2000; Saunders et al. , 2000; Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2002). In this case, interviews were recorded with the permission of the respondents in order to retain as much data for the transcription and facilitate the analysis procedures, which is going to be conveyed into the next chapter. However, according to Saunders et al. (2000) and Ghauri and Gronhaug (2002), there are some disadvantages that tape-recording an interview can bring, such as the interviewee’s hesitation in responding some question or even not to answer them, which will reduce the reliability of the interview; as well as the transcription is time consuming. In the former, the participants did not have any inconvenient for the interview be recorded; and for the latter time furthermore was reserved for the interviews’ transcription. 3. 8. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE RESEARCH. As stated by Collis and Hussey (2003) and Saunders et al. (2003), there are two aspects related to the credibility of the findings, thus it is important to consider the significance of the reliability and validity of the research outcome. In this case, reliability is concern with how well it has been carried out the research project (Blaxter et al. , 2001), which refers to the possibility of obtaining the same exact results if repeating the study (Collis and Hussey, 2003), in other words, the consistency of the methods of data collection, thus the results (Denscombe, 2002). On the other hand, validity concerns with whether the data, approaches and techniques in study actually relate to the issues that have been explored and the results relate to what is really happening in the situation (Blaxter et al. , 2001; Collis and Hussey, 2003; Saunders et al. 2003). There are some discussions which claim that qualitative research often provide valid findings, while quantitative research offers more reliable findings (Berg, 2004). This has been critiqued by Saunders et al. (2000) who state that it is possible for qualitative and quantitative research to provide both valid and reliable findings. Therefore, it can be said that considering the present research, which adopts a phenomenological approach, it is important to highlight that the reliability and validity of the questions in the interviews were maximized by the careful design of the individual questions and the clear explanation of the purpose of the interviews. Moreover, the reliability and validity of the research and the obtained information gathered from the interviews is directly linked to the applied strategy and purpose of the research, as well as to the aim and objectives of the investigation. Besides, validity is ensured by the transcriptions and further analysis of the interviewee’s experiences and opinions by direct quotations. 3. 9. ETHICAL ISSUES Researchers like Creswell (1994), Kumar (1996), Saunders et al. (2000), Collis Hussey (2003) and Jankowicz (2005) have placed emphasis on the importance of ethical considerations when doing a research. For business and management researchers, ethical issues of vital importance are confidentiality, informed consent, and honest representation of findings. Therefore, considering these ethical issues, this research requested the consent of the participants prior to the data collection, guaranteeing them of the confidentially of the information they would provide. In addition, the data collected was analyzed in a logical and scientific manner, allowing the proper representation of findings. CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4. 1 COPING STRATEGIES TO COMBAT SEX DISCRIMINATION Two of the participants responded that they have not felt any kind of sex discrimination at their workplace. None of the participants felt that women need to use their feminism in order to progress in their careers. Anna responded that the gap of academic, promotional and employment opportunities for women has almost filled and men and women are getting almost equal opportunities. Anna and Emmy felt that women can do what they have decided to do in their minds and they consider themselves as an example of that kind of women. Maggie, in contrast, does not feel the same because she has an experience of workplace sex discrimination against women. She has also been discouraged to join the old-boy network and she has also experienced sexual harassment in her organization. She informed the researcher that the only way to cope up with the workplace discrimination is to get ready to move to a new job. She agreed with Emmy and Anna by saying that women who want to excel in their career can do it on their own merits. Maggie informed the researcher that she does not believe in confronting her seniors about the elimination of sex discrimination from the workplace. She also does not have any expectations from her seniors that they will try to eliminate sex discrimination from the workplace by implementing strategies to promote anti sex –discrimination policies. Thus the present study confirms the finding of study by Venter (2002) that there is no or little sex discrimination at today’s workplaces in Hong Kong. Venter (2002) found out that 66 % of the women managers interviewed in Hong Kong had responded that they did not find any sex discrimination at their workplace and 83% of them had felt that the attitude towards female managers are same as towards male managers. Westwood Leung (1999) found out that Hong Kong women managers are very less aware of the sex discrimination at workplace. Ng Pine (2003) had reported very interesting information that several Hong Kong women managers believe that sex discrimination is a prominent feature at Hong Kong organizations but when they were asked to describe their experience of sex discrimination then only a small number of the women managers were able to describe their own experience. The rest of the respondents informed that they haven’t experienced sex discrimination personally. Studies have clearly proved that Hong Kong women managers do not have any intention to confront their superiors and fight for the anti sex discrimination policies. Researches have also shown that when Hong Kong women managers are sexually harassed then they even do not confront the harasser and report to superiors and they instead use coping strategies such as they avoid or ignore the harasser, they prefer to quit or get transferred if the problem is not resolved (Chan et al. 1999; Ng 1995b). High attitude towards opportunities is found among Hong Kong women managers. They have great ability to deal any kind of discrimination at their work place. They keep their eyes and ears open and keep themselves in search of a suitable job incase they are fired or they quit. Their general and overall aim is to progress in their careers to get the higher positions in the organizations and thus they use their flexible nature to get the maximum number of opportunities to be succeeded (Venter 2002). Ng Pine (2003) reported that female hotel managers believe in using personal strategies to cope up with the discriminatory issue at their workplace. They believe in developing by looking more presentable, tend to dress up like a professional and rely on working hard to be proved as highly professional. Ng Pine (2003) found that majority of Hong Kong women managers have a high ‘can-do’ attitude and thus they believe in doing their job the best ways irrespective of the discriminatory issues against them at their workplace. Ng Chiu (1997) explained the reason of few organizations with family friendly policies is the low expectations behaviors of Hong Kong women managers who do not confront their superiors for the elimination of sex discrimination from the organization and they instead depends on their personalized strategies. Babcock Laschever (2003) found out the reason of Hong Kong women managers’ less success is due to their less skilful negotiating attitudes. However, it can not be said whether they have less skilful negotiating attitudes but it is clear from the evidences that negotiation is not prominent in the attitude of the women managers. Venter (2002) found out that as Hong Kong women managers do not have the habit to confront their superiors to get their equal rights at the workplace, they simply get less tensed as compared to other female managers who belong to Britain. Thus Hong Kong Chinese women managers are more successful in their careers and reach to the higher positions as compared to British women managers in Hong Kong. Javidan House (2001) explained that high achievement is a part of Hong Kong culture and this culture has changed the attitudes of employed women and has made them enthusiastic to grow in their careers. Hong Kong Women managers who fly high in their careers are seen as highly respected due to their ability to achieve their goal on their own without any support of society and workplace. But the women who do not reach the higher positions are blamed to be a failure due to their lack of sense of professionalism. They are considered as ‘non professional’ when they do not reach to the manager’s position. It is reflected among the society and organizations that a form of sex discrimination is evident due to the stereotyping of sex and power relations based on genders. There are very few structural changes through which the sex stereotyping and gendered roles at organizations can be changed. 4. 2 COPING STRATEGIES TO COMBAT GENDER ROLES The researcher asked all the three interviewees about their perception of single women. All of them have different perceptions on single women. Emmy feels that women stay single when they are not beautiful and thus no men attract towards such ugly women. Maggie sighed that she dreams of being a single but she also feels that being single it would have been very difficult for her to grow in her career and she has not been as successful as she is now. She also said that her roots in careers would have been very weak being a single woman. Anna feels that being a single woman is the best thing in the world. All her single friends are living happily and they do not want to get married because they believe that marriage brings a lot of problems with it. As diversity is more profound among the community of single women, the three interviewees seem influenced by the reflection of such diversity. Maggie, Anna and Emmy, all of them, love their husbands and children very much and they feel that they are the most important part of their lives. Though they consider family as the most important thing in their lives, they also believe that they cannot be stay-at-home women because they feel that they get the sense of achievement when they work and thus they get a balanced life. The nature of job of Emmy is quite flexible so she is allowed to work in flexible hours, and this way she gets a lot of time to spend with her family. She feels that her work has not affected her role as a mother as she takes plenty of time out to spend with her children. Maggie and Anna feel in contrast. They feel that they have been sandwiched between their wish to grow in their careers and their wish to spend more time with their children to ensure that the children’s education is not getting affected. This shows that both of them have both a high sense of achievement and a high sense of parenting. They feel guilty of not fulfilling their wish to be a good parent though both of them have hired foreign domestic helper. All the three interviewees believe that bringing up children is the primary duty of a woman and if a woman is employed then this duty should be handed over to other members of the extended family. All the three interviewees consider their families more important than their careers as compared to their husbands. These women do not have the habit of negotiation so they do not confront with their husbands and superiors to give them equal status. Researches have shown that Hong Kong women managers use personalized strategies to deal with work-family stress by taking help from relative, foreign domestic helpers and tutors (Lo et al. 2003; Ng 1999). Hakim (2003) also supported these positions that Hong Kong employed women are more family-centered as compared to their husbands and thus these women tend to less successful in their careers as compared to their husbands. The coping strategies that Hong Kong employed women used to reduce their work-family stress have a strong relation to the social culture of Hong Kong. Majority of Hong Kong employed women believe that they will not get any help from the government in terms of a caretaker because the social culture promotes the caretaker role of mothers and wives. If these women need help of a caretaker then they have to do it on their own because this is considered as a personal problem instead of a societal problem. All the three interviewees believe that though they are working at higher positions but their husbands should be respected as they are the breadwinners. Wives should help their husbands to be more successful in their careers. This shows that the traditional values of Hong Kong have set the mind of the women regarding their roles as a wife and a mother. The present study confirms the results of the previous studies (EOC 1997; Hong Kong Government 2003a) that the traditional ideology of a Chinese family for a man to be in charge of the work outside the house and for a woman to be in charge of the work inside the house is still present in Hong Kong culture. Due to the impact of this culture, even when both the parents are equally working and are equally concerned about the academic achievements and social well-being of their children, husbands have the liberty to be more career oriented by leaving behind their family without any sense of guilt. Thus, the culture of Hong Kong does not appreciate the growth of women as career women. This is impossible until and unless structural changes are made to understand these cultural contexts. The power structure can be changed only when the society and organizations believe in equal opportunities by dividing the power equally among women and men managers as the career success of a woman on her own basis is of no use. 2. 1. 1 FUTURE OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN AS MANAGERS IN HONG KONG It is commonly believed in Hong Kong that women can achieve their goals by their enthusiasm and hard work. For this reason, Hong Kong women working at senior managerial positions tend to believe in personally designed strategies to cope up with the requirements of their workplace, homes and kids. Moreover, they believe in handling the situation of sex discrimination personally rather by confronting their superiors for the implementation of anti sex discrimination policies. They are no or little aware of a political agenda that can change their lives by bringing positive changes in institutionalization of their family status, by changing the organizational culture and state policies. Maggie, Emmy and Anna informed the researcher that they do not get time for socialization. Anna informed that in Chinese culture, home is considered as a private place so majority of Chinese do not believe in inviting friends at home unless they are very close to them because they think that it will ruin their privacy. Majority of Hong Kong women trust extended family members to take care of their children but this scenario may result in increased problems for them in future. Mobility of labor force has increased due to globalization. Two of the three interviewees are not originally Hong Kong based. A steady rise has been observed in the number of women managers on the mainland. Due to intensification of globalization, less stability is expected in support from the extended family members in Hong Kong. The traditional heterosexual family system in Hong Kong has been changed and different forms of family structure have appeared. The concept of extended family members was possible in a heterosexual family only. So, this concept does not seem to be valid with the new family structure as single-parent families are becoming common. As the concept of extended family is diminishing, women who prefer to grow in their career would seem to have no children. if primary importance will continue to be given to husband’s career, and wife’s role will be continued as a support to her husband than her husband has been to her, then there are great chances for a large number of career oriented women to remain single. When women will have to work hard and design personalized strategies to cope up with the work-family stress then a large number of women will stop marrying. Thus, number of never-married women will increase in Hong Kong. CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION Push and pull tensions are found among Hong Kong women managers. At one side, the traditional Chinese culture is still dominated in Hong Kong that makes women responsible primarily for their housework and men are considered as bread-winners. Women are expected to bring up and take care of children and other family members. So this traditional Chinese culture does not seem supportive for a woman to dream of getting success in organizations besides performing her domestic duties. At another side, women in Hong Kong that have earned higher degrees are attracted towards handsomely paid jobs due to the realistic approach of capitalism in Hong Kong. Successful women managers in Hong Kong are rewarded. Organizations search for never-married women who are ready to work on the pre-decided terms of men. So it is a common belief in Hong Kong that if women are good they can get success in organizations. If women are very good at setting personalized agenda to balance their work-family stress then they would be successful. But the researcher is not happy with these conditions. The researcher suggests that women should be encouraged and supported by society and organizations. They should be given support to get a balanced life. Organizations should implement strategies to promote anti discrimination policies. Women and family friendly policies should be encouraged in organizations. This means that there is a need to redefine the role of women at home and in organizations. They should be given equal opportunities like men and be promoted to higher positions as per their skills. Appendix A. Letter sent to the Participants of the Interviews Dear Participants, Thank you for agreeing to do this interview and participate in my Masters investigation. This letter is to inform you all related to the interview, to establish your ethical rights and my responsibilities, as well as to provide some information prior to the interview. My intention is to do an investigation to explore whether a bamboo-ceiling exists in the career pathway of Hong Kong women managers. I am currently interviewing women managers that are working in a male dominating environment to find out whether these women managers face any obstacles in order to achieve the purpose of my study. The data will be collected via interviews, which will last one hour and one hour and a half. During the interview you have the right to refuse to answer a question or a set of questions. The participant’s identities will be remained as confidential at all stages, during and after the research. Expected benefits of participation will be the opportunity to contribute knowledge to a largely under researched area and the obtained findings will be used for academic purposes only, so the access to the collected data will be permitted for university lectures and library use only. Thank you once again for your cooperation. Yours sincerely, [Your name] [Your degree] [Your university] Table 1: Ratio of Women Managers in Hong Kong, % Year Proportion, % 1994 17. 5 1995 19. 4 1996 19. 6 1997 19. 9 1998 21. 5 1999 21. 9 2000 24. 2 2001 25. 4 2002 25. 7 Source: Hong Kong Government, 2003b: 57. Table 2: Distribution of Managers by Industry and Gender Table 3: No. of Males and Females Never-Married Aged 15 and Over Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Table 4: No. of Never-Married Employed Males and Females by Occupation, 2001. Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Table 5: Main Employment, Female-Male Ratio, Median Monthly Income, Marital Status, Age Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. References Babcock, L. Laschever, S. 2003. Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press). Berg, B. , 2004. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. International Student Edition. 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